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types of lexical semantics

Important figures (among many others) are Hermann Paul, Michel Bréal, and Gustaf Stern (see Ullmann, 1962, for an introductory overview). The prestructuralist period (ranging from the middle of the 19th century up to the 1930s) was the heyday of historical semantics, in the sense that the study of meaning change reigned supreme within semantics. In essence, we often ask patients to solve a problem imposed by the experimenter, such as to match a word to a picture, to give a verbal definition on the basis of a picture or word input, or to pantomime a concept. We should thus distinguish between the lexical meanings of words, a part of the speaker's linguistic competence (a component of the lexical item, like its syntactic features and phonological form) and hence vulnerable to aphasia, and conceptual representations that are outside of implicit linguistic competence and thus are not vulnerable to aphasia (though they are vulnerable to other forms of mental disruption). They were just treated as unanalyzed constants, as in formal logic, to be assigned values by interpretation in a model. Probing Pretrained Language Models for Lexical Semantics ... carry more type-level lexical knowledge, but also show that this knowledge is distributed across multiple layers. The commercial transaction frame can be characterized informally by a scenario in which one person gets control or possession of something from a second person, as a result of a mutual agreement through which the first person gives the second person a sum of money. ‘Restriction’ and ‘narrowing’ of meaning equal ‘specialization,’ while ‘extension,’ ‘schematization,’ and ‘broadening’ of meaning equal ‘generalization.’ Also, the meanings involved can be said to entertain relations of taxonomical subordination or superordination: in a taxonomy (a tree-like hierarchical classification) of concepts, the specialized meaning is subordinate with regard to the original one, whereas the generalized meaning is superordinate with regard to the original. In the case of buy, for instance, the buyer appears in the participant role of the agent, for instance as the subject of the (active) sentence. 5 in semantic relations phenomena in human language behavior. If we cross-classify the two distinctions, we get four groups of topics. Interestingly, there were no hemispheric effects, suggesting that areas outside the classical language areas contribute to the lexical semantics in the wider “world-knowledge” sense. The form of any aspect of the grammar (phonology, morphosyntax, lexical-semantic features—a linguistic construct) may be the result of language contact, but once it has been internalized as implicit linguistic competence, there is no indication that it is not represented in the mind (a psycholinguistic construct) or in the brain (a neurolinguistic construct) in the same manner as any other linguistic system. The conceptual system, where messages are elaborated before they are verbalized in the course of the encoding process, and where a mental representation is attained at the end of the decoding process, remains independent and isolable from the language systems. Because of this, it may be difficult to separate neurolin- guistically the grammatical from semantic specifications. These two are necessarily connected, since an adequate description of meaning must be able to support our account of variation and our ability to interpret it. Phenomenology: Aspects ofsimilarityinverbs Selectional Restrictionsand Subcategorisation Frames Frame Semantics Semantic RoleLabelling Lexical relations between … Probably the two most fundamental questions addressed by lexical semanticists are: (a) how to describe the meanings of words, and (b) how to account for the variability of meaning from context to context. It has also been observed that people while able to make judgments of normative grammaticality about sentences are unable to come up with formal justifications (Nagy & Genter, 1990). In the former case, it’s not the virtual space as such that is relevant, but the items that are stored there. Many languages make grammatical distinctions corresponding to the conceptual distinctions of gender and number but few involve distinctions of color or between different animal species. Metaphors conceptualize a target domain in terms of the source domain, and such a mapping takes the form of an alignment between aspects of the source and target. Within the first set, major phenomena include polysemy (in contrast with vagueness), metonymy, metaphor, and prototypicality. 3. Frame theory is specifically interested in the way in which language may be used to perspectivize an underlying conceptualization of the world: it’s not just that we see the world in terms of conceptual models, but those models may be verbalized in different ways. Making use of this abbreviated notation, other common types of metonymy are the following: a spatial location for what is located there (the whole theater was in tears); a period of time for what happens in that period, for the people who live then, or for what is produced during that period (the 19th century had a nationalist approach to politics); a material for the product made from it (a cork); the origin for what originates from it (astrakhan, champagne, emmental); an activity or event for its consequences (when the blow you have received hurts, it is not the activity of your adversary that is painful, but the physical effects that it has on your body); an attribute for the entity that possesses the attribute’ (majesty does not only refer to ‘royal dignity or status,’ but also to the sovereign himself); and of course part for whole (a hired hand). One task of lexical semantics is the study of lexical sense relations. Hillis and Caramazza (1995) argue that noun and verb dissociation is further embedded within input and output systems. Regardless of the theoretical oppositions, these phenomena all belong to the descriptive scope of current lexical semantics: the emergence of new points of attention has not made the older topics irrelevant. Zipf–Mandelbrot's formula shows that a limited set of lexical units with a high frequency of occurrence accounts for the major part of the token distribution in any corpus of language (Manning & Schütze, 1999). In the case of semantic specialization, the new meaning is a restriction of the old meaning: the new meaning is a subcase of the old. For example, Wetzel and Molfese (1992) recorded ERPs to two factive verbs (noticed, revealed) and two non- factive verbs (maintained, supposed) embedded within appropriate sentence frames; for example, “Dick noticed Bob was gone,” about which the subject answered a question. More particularly, three distinct kinds of structural relations among lexical items have been singled out as the proper methodological basis of lexical semantics. Some experiments claimed to support the two-store hypothesis, others were construed as supporting the one-store hypothesis, while some supported neither, as the subjects' responses were too different for a one-store explanation but not different enough for a two-store account. Theoretically speaking, the main theoretical approaches that have succeeded each other in the history of lexical semantics are prestructuralist historical semantics, structuralist semantics, and cognitive semantics. Similarly, Samar and Berent (1986) found that an ERP component centering on 220 msec poststimulus distinguishes nouns from verbs, again with verbs obtaining greater positivity. First, there is the relationship of semantic similarity that lies at the basis of semantic field analysis and componential analysis: see section 1.3, “Lexical Fields and Componential Analysis.” Second, there are unanalyzed lexical relations such as synonymy, antonymy, and hyponymy: see section 1.4, “Lexical Relations.” Third, syntagmatic lexical relations lie at the basis of a distributional approach to semantics: see section 1.5, “Distributional Relations.”. Onomasiology takes the converse perspective: given a concept to be expressed or a thing to be categorized, what options does a language offer, and how are the choices made?) Specifically, it was applied not just to the internal structure of a single word meaning, but also to the structure of polysemous words, that is, to the relationship between the various meanings of a word. Whereas conceptual onomasiological variation involves the choice of different conceptual categories for a referent (like the examples presented so far), formal onomasiological variation merely involves the use of different synonymous names for the same conceptual category. In the latter case, it’s not the mouse as such (the thing that you hold in your hand) that you refer to, but the pointer on the screen that is operated by the mouse. Like specialization and generalization, it is convenient and customary to introduce metaphor and metonymy together, even though the relationship is not as close as with the former pair. Words may in fact have specific combinatorial features which it would be natural to include in a field analysis. With the poststructuralist emergence of cognitive semantics, the pendulum swings back to a position in which the distinction between semantics and pragmatics is not a major issue, in which language is seen in the context of cognition at large, and in which language use is as much a focus of enquiry as the language system. If a particular referent can be alternatively categorized as a wrap-around skirt or a miniskirt, there could just as well be a preferential choice: when you encounter something that is both a wrap-around skirt and a miniskirt, the most natural way of naming that referent in a neutral context would probably be ‘miniskirt.’ If, then, we have to reckon with intra-level differences of salience next to inter-level differences, the concept of onomasiological salience has to be generalized in such a way that it relates to individual categories at any level of the hierarchy. For American and European subjects (there is clear cultural variation on this point), oranges, apples, and bananas are the most typical fruits, while pineapples, watermelons, and pomegranates receive low typicality ratings. Thus it is still common for descriptive grammars of individual languages to contain no separate section on semantics other than providing a lexicon. (More on metaphor and metonymy follows in section 1.6, “Conceptual Metaphor and Metonymy.”) Metaphor is then said to be based on a relationship of similarity between the old and the new reading, and metonymy on a relationship of contiguity. Lexical and thematic semantical concepts or roles3 (e.g., notions of agent, patient, instrument, location, qualifications, quantifications; cf. An understanding of synchronic variation of meaning (variation observable at any one time in a language) is essential to an understanding of diachronic change (change over time). The most common classification of semantic relations emerges from the tradition of historical semantics, that is, the vocabulary used to describe synchronic relations between word meanings is essentially the same as the vocabulary used to describe diachronic changes of meaning. Corresponding privileges of occurrence implicitly noted by the speakers/hearers together with the semantical and pragmatical analogies mentioned above, are sufficient. 2, the lexical–semantic route provides the only mechanism for incorporating meaning into writing. However, more recent developments have led to a reconceptualization of what lexical semantics should do. There is a lot of terminological variation in connection with specialization and generalization. If you ask people to list kinds of fruit, some types come to mind more easily than others. ‘qualitative’ perspectives: elements and relations, ‘quantitative’ perspectives: differences of salience, Basic levels and onomasiological salience. This illustrates the third characteristic mentioned above.  Some common examples are the pairs: alive / dead, big / small, fat / slow, happy / sad, hot / cold, long / short, male / female, married / single, old / new, rich / poor, true / false Background knowledge involved in this scenario includes an understanding of ownership relations, a money economy, and commercial contracts. The focus lies on the lexicological study of word meaning as a phenomenon in its own right, rather than on the interaction with neighboring disciplines. Words should not be considered in isolation, but in their relationship to semantically related words: demarcation is always a demarcation relative to other words. The semantic information that is associated with the item neighbor in the lexicon does not, in other words, contain a specification regarding sex; neighbor is vague (or general, or unspecified) as to the dimension of gender. Seven Types ofSeven Types of MeaningMeaning A presentation on SemanticsA presentation on Semantics miftadia_laula@yahoo.co.i d 2. Paradigmatic. 2). As such, the clustering of meanings that is typical of family resemblances implies that not every meaning is structurally equally important (and a similar observation can be made with regard to the components into which those meanings may be analyzed). The strength of type-logical semantics lies with the latter, but type-logical theories can be combined with many competing hypotheses about lexical meaning, provided these hypotheses are … We take this to include semantic features (for example, + animate, + object, — action) that also have implications for grammatical use. One axis of the debate is whether words, for example, are simply labels for concepts, or whether there is a need for an independent semantic interface that isolates just grammatically relevant elements of conceptual structure. Important contributions to lexical semantics include prototype theory (see section 1.8, “Prototype Effects and Radial Sets”), conceptual metaphor theory (see section 1.6, “Conceptual Metaphor and Metonymy”), frame semantics (see section 1.8), and the emergence of usage-based onomasiology (see section 1.9, “Basic Levels and Onomasiological Salience”). Lexical field of colour includes words such as . (It is not yet clear what implications this has for the concept of lexical semantics in the narrow linguistic sense.) We cannot turn back now. The context of acquisition may influence the content of a grammar and the context of use may influence the availability of some of its elements, but they have no influence on the principles by which brain mechanisms store and process these elements. Because this clustered set is often built up round a central meaning, the term ‘radial set’ is often used for this kind of polysemic structure. We might say that a speaker of the first sentence is implying the second, in a certain context. I don’t think this relationship is going anywhere. When asked, they propose semantical criteria (e.g., grammatical subjects are the agents of the verbs that can be identified with questions like Who does what, Who is what?). By way of example, consider fruit as referring to a type of food. There is no room to discuss the relationship between lexical semantics and lexicography as an applied discipline. As suggested by Skinner (1957), the words inflected at the beginning of the sentence serve as discriminative flags reminding the speaker to operate cohesively with the following words. Together with the theoretical and descriptive innovations introduced by cognitive semantics, this new quantitative and computational method is likely to shape the evolution of lexical semantics in the following years. Dirk Geeraerts, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), 2015. 44–45) is the following. Lexical items can also be semantically classified based on whether their meanings are derived from single lexical units or from their surrounding environment. In the final decades of the 20th century, major advances in the distributional approach to semantics were achieved by applying a distributional way of meaning analysis to large text corpora. isolate and define the various types of lexical problems subsumed under this rubric. The distinction between vagueness and polysemy involves the question of whether a particular piece of semantic information is part of the underlying semantic structure of the item or is the result of a contextual (and hence pragmatic) specification. Using corpus materials, this study established that the choice for one lexical item rather than the other as the name for a given referent is determined by the semasiological salience of the referent (i.e., the degree of prototypicality of the referent with regard to the semasiological structure of the category), by the overall onomasiological salience of the category represented by the expression, and by contextual features of a classical sociolinguistic and geographical nature, involving the competition between different language varieties. Semantics is generally divided into John I. Saeed, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), 2015. Several mechanisms operate to control allowable messages in a language and their meaning ; Basic … A summary of the contribution of the major theoretical approaches is given in Table 2. Possibly the major innovation of the prototype model of categorization is to give salience a place in the description of semasiological structure: next to the qualitative relations among the elements in a semasiological structure (like metaphor and metonymy), a quantifiable center-periphery relationship is introduced as part of the architecture. For instance, relying on the indirect route via the phonological output lexicon may result in homophone confusions (e.g., “stair”–“stare”) since these words have the exact same sound pattern even though they are spelled differently. For instance, the so-called identity test involves ‘identity-of-sense anaphora.’ Thus, at midnight the ship passed the port, and so did the bartender is awkward if the two lexical meanings of port are at stake. Ullman maintains that the end product of grammatical learning is a system of linguistic rules. This stage follows the conceptual one by a few milliseconds. An Overview of Lexical Semantics Kent Johnson* University of California, Irvine Abstract This article reviews some linguistic and philosophical work in lexical semantics. It is, however, an unfortunate aspect of the semantic memory tradition that the fractionation of semantic memory into different components has received more attention than the representational structure of its content. In the canonical compartmentalization of linguistics, lexicography belongs to applied linguistics. Reference is the act of identifying an entity (the referent) while sense is the means of doing so. Functional similarities also underlie metaphorical expressions like bookmark, clipboard, file, folder, cut, and paste. The four characteristics are not coextensive; that is, they do not necessarily occur together. perl -MCPAN -e shell install Lexical::Types While different conceptions of the notion ‘lexical field’ were suggested after Trier’s initial formulation, the most important development is the emergence of componential analysis as a technique for formalizing the semantic relationships between the items in a field: once a lexical field has been demarcated, the internal relations within the field will have to be described in more detail. But if linguistics is interested in the structure of the language rather than the structure of the world, it may want to use a descriptive apparatus that is more purely linguistic. Steven Z. Rapcsak, Pelagie M. Beeson, in Encyclopedia of the Human Brain, 2002. The hypothesis is based on the ethnolinguistic observation that folk classifications of biological domains usually conform to a general organizational principle, in the sense that they consist of five or six taxonomical levels (Berlin, 1978). Semantics is commonly divided into lexical semantics, which studies the meaning of words, and compositional semantics, which studies the way in which complex phrases obtain a meaning from their constituents. Two other sentences may seem to say essentially the same thing, even be paraphrases of each other, yet one may be more suited to one context than another, like the pair Bandits looted the train and The train was looted by bandits. 2. As can be seen in Fig. They then also take a more ‘pragmatic’ perspective: if the emphasis moves away from the linguistic system as a more or less stable, more or less autonomous repository of possibilities, there will be more attention to language use as the actualization of those possibilities. Given this, one might expect that such a distinction would be respected in terms of how the brain codes lexical items or processes them, that is, whether they depend on different tissue in the brain. This absence of a neat definition illustrates the first characteristic. Regardless of the theoretical oppositions, these phenomena all belong to the descriptive scope of current lexical semantics: the emergence of new points of attention has not made the older topics irrelevant. Lexical items contain information about category (lexical and syntactic), form and meaning. It is not sufficient to say that the items in the field are in mutual opposition—these oppositions will have to be identified and defined. One of us Rondal (2006, 2010, 2011) has suggested to dispense with the notions of formal and functional classes operated by abstract rules that are at the core of the linguistic descriptions and have been uncritically introduced in psycholinguistics for explaining grammatical functioning. Conceptual metaphor theory, the approach introduced by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), includes two basic ideas: first, the view that metaphor is a cognitive phenomenon, rather than a purely lexical one; second, the view that metaphor should be analyzed as a mapping between two domains. Pulvermüller (1996) has applied EEG spectral techniques to these same issues with much success. The initial step in the introduction of onomasiological salience is the basic-level hypothesis. Other inferential links are weaker and more contextually dependent: from the utterance Bob drank some of the beer it might be reasonable to infer Bob didn't drink all of the beer but it is possible to think of situations where this inference would not hold. The prototype-based conception of categorization originated in the mid-1970s with Rosch’s psycholinguistic research into the internal structure of categories (see, among others, Rosch, 1975). Each one of these categories subsumes a set of semantical indications which is why they are descriptively useful. Whereas the most typical kinds of fruit are the sweet and juicy ones that grow on trees, other kinds may lack one or even more of these features. Focusing on the major topics, these contributions successively include the links between the various senses of words in prestructuralist historical semantics, the semantic relationships within the vocabulary in the structuralist era, and the importance of semasiological and onomasiological salience effects in cognitive semantics. This can include a study of individual nouns, verbs, adjectives, prefixes , root words , suffixes , or longer phrases or idioms . Recent work in neurolinguistics supports this proposal. 1. In this textbook D. A. Cruse establishes in a principled and disciplined way the descriptive and generalizable facts … Verbs like buy and sell then each encode a certain perspective on the commercial transaction scene by highlighting specific elements of the scene. Disregarding puns, it can only mean that the ship and the bartender alike passed the harbor, or conversely that both moved a particular kind of wine from one place to another. Paradigmatic substitution exploiting isomorphic analogies (positional as well as semantical and pragmatical) in sentence surface structures contributes to the constitution of the language repertoires. These theoretical frameworks differ as to whether they take a system-oriented rather than a usage-oriented approach to word-meaning research but, at the same time, in the historical development of the discipline, they have each contributed significantly to the descriptive and conceptual apparatus of lexical semantics. Learning occurs on an ongoing basis during multiple presentations of the elements. Linguists as well as philosophers have to account for language's ability to allow us to refer to nonexistent and hypothetical referents like World War Three, the still undiscovered cure for cancer, the end of the world. Third, the definitional criterion specifies that an item has more than one lexical meaning if there is no minimally specific definition covering the extension of the item as a whole, and that it has no more lexical meanings than there are maximally general definitions necessary to describe its extension. The application of prototype theory to the study of parts of speech and syntactic constructions has been especially fruitful. The distinction between polysemy and vagueness is not unproblematic, methodologically speaking. The latter is located in the frontal cortex (particularly the Broca area), parietal and superior temporal cortices, basal ganglia, and cerebellar structures, whereas the former depending on declarative memory is rooted in a series of medial temporal lobe structures including the hippocampal region.

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